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Mixed-species Exhibits with Ursids

Brown Bear, Ursus arctos and Grey Wolf, Canis lupus at Juraparc, Vallorbe, Switzerland (photo credit: Juraparc)The success of a mixed-species exhibit depends on how we can take general animal husbandry criteria into account in more complex ways in comparison with a single-species exhibit. Those general rules that are important in animal exhibitry are still valid to a greater extent when presenting a multi-species captive environment. As many articles and other publications deal with the subject of general advantages and disadvantages of the mixed-species exhibits, instead of this, here I will assemble a detailed list of mixed exhibits involving at least one member of Ursidae

 

Use of Space and Enclosure Furnishings

Part of the Sun Bear, Helarctos malayanus and Binturong, Arctictis binturong mixed exhibit (note the Binturong on top of the tree) at Burgers’ Zoo, Arnhem, The Netherlands (photo: Christian)Generally speaking, one of the most critical factor is the size of the area: the larger the enclosure, the fewer the problems. Since most of the Ursids are powerful and territorial animals, by expanding the size of the whole captive habitat we can greatly increase the chances that the specimens of the different species are able to get out of each other’s way. Although this quantitative factor is also important, however, the quality of the given enclosure is much more crucial, since these agents can ensure the stress-free socialization of the combined species. It is extremely important to provide a secure outdoor and indoor space for the subdominant specimens whether belonging to the same species or not. The outdoor exhibit should be well-structured with many kinds of enclosure furnishing elements like small mounds, logs, rock formations and heavily planted areas so that the animals can get out of visual contact with others sharing the same enclosure and provide several escape routes in case of an aggressive contact between the different species. The best option is if the species mixed with the Ursids have their own „bear-proof” areas both outdoors and indoors.

Feeding

Sun Bears, Helarctos malayanus and Binturongs, Arctictis binturong at Burgers’ Zoo, Arnhem, The Netherlands (photo credit: Theo Kruse)In terms of the daily routine tasks using the appropriate feeding techniques is one of the key factor of success. The experiences show that in several cases other carnivores, like coatis, otters and mostly smaller canids have been combined with the bears, which can be easily competitor species in reference of nutrition. Therefore it is necessary to feed the mentioned smaller species separately or provide as many feeding stations as possible throughout the whole enclosure and keep the competition to a minimum level, because most of the injuries and lethal accidents are the results of food-related aggression. In general, feeding the different species separately is a participating factor to manage the mixed-species exhibit successfully, but on the other hand this makes it difficult to apply certain food-related environmental enrichment methods in comparison with a single-species enclosure. For example, the use of scatter feeding can be safely applied in case of a very large enclosure. With the exception of a few species, most of the Ursids’ natural foraging behaviour means that the animals need a large amount of time to find, collect and consume small and scattered food items, therefore it is practical to provide a captive environment as big as possible in order to eliminate the competition between the carnivore species.

Breeding

Sloth Bear, Melursus ursinus and juvenile Rhesus Macaque, Macaca mulatta at Zoologischer Garten Leipzig, Germany (photo credit: Zoologischer Garten Leipzig)One of the most important question is to decide whether we would like to breed the species involved in a multi-species exhibit, or which species we want to breed. The practice of zoos keeping bears in a mixed exhibit shows that the presence of these powerful animals means potential danger for the other species whether they are dominant or subdominant in the given coexistence or not, just think about the many inexperienced juvenile wolves and foxes that have been killed by bears in captivity. Providing the above mentioned „bear-proof” areas or total separation can be the solution during the time of rearing the young. Furthermore, the behavioural changes of the adult animals during the breeding season must also be borne in mind which may easily lead to fatal injuries. Therefore it is really important to emphasize the possibility of proper separation because there are only a few known cases when the offspring of a non-bear species have grown up successfully with the constant presence of the Ursids. Generally speaking it seems to be true that the proper management of breeding in a mixed-species enclosure is more difficult – or sometimes impossible – than in a single-species exhibit. As a result, there is no aim to breed (all) the animals in this type of exhibitry in many cases, so sterilisation and single-sex grouping are also applied techniques in managing, and the latter is common where brown bears are being housed with grey wolves. If any of the species has an important breeding programme like EEP or SSP, it is worth to look over and analyse all the mentioned disadvantages before putting the given animals into a mixed enclosure.

Choice of Species and Individuals

American Black Bear, Ursus americanus and American Bisons, Bison bison at Safari Parc de Peaugres, France (photo credit: Arthus Boutin)According to the criteria of species selection, most of the known examples show that zoos exhibit animals together from the same geographic region for educational purposes. In case of combining species that occupy similar ecological niches in nature the level of competition can be very high, therefore a large difference in body size between the combined species may be part of the solution. Choosing animals with different lifestyles – for example terrestrial-arboreal or diurnal-nocturnal – might be a good option as well, like in many zoos where they are housing Ursids with different fox species. In contrast with that the bears may also be the subdominant inhabitants of the enclosure when sharing the space with large herbivores. Although considering the theoretical approaches of the appropriate selection of species are also very important, we have to take into account that the success of the combination depends mostly on the individual level, simply because of the diverse individual characteristics of the animals in terms of behaviour. Correct introduction of the different species is a very sensitive issue which depends principally on the method of socialization and age of the animals. Introducing the smaller and subdominant species to the exhibit can be efficient due to exploring the whole area before the bears. During the socialization the principle of gradience should be followed, so visual and olfactory stimuli have to be the first before the possibility of physical contact of the Asiatic Black Bear, Ursus thibetanus and Corsac Fox, Vulpes corsac at DierenPark Amersfoort, The Netherlands (photo credit: DierenPark Amersfoort)animals. In general younger animals can be combined easier, but the experiences have shown us the contrary of that in case of Ursids. While the older individuals mostly ignore the other species, the young bears are more agile and their extremely curious and explorative behaviour sometimes leads to unpleasant harassment for the subdominant smaller animals.

Opinion

My overall impression is – and experiences reflect the same fact – that keeping different bear species in mixed exhibits can easily be problematic in many cases which is strengthened by numerous lethal attacks and fatalities caused by bears. All of these facts show that we have to handle this exhibitry type with bears very cautiously with special emphasis on preliminary studies and use of risk analysis methods.


Photo gallery

Different Ursid species, like Brown Bears, Ursus arctos, Polar Bears, Ursus maritimus and American Black Bears, Ursus americanus at Zoo Hannover in the 1930s (photo credit: Erlebnis-Zoo Hannover)  Brown Bears, Ursus arctos and Polar Bears, Ursus maritimus in the same exhibit space at Erlebnis-Zoo Hannover, Germany, 2002 (photo credit: Erlebnis-Zoo Hannover)
 Brown Bear, Ursus arctos and Grey Wolf, Canis lupus at Juraparc, Vallorbe, Switzerland (photo credit: Juraparc)  Brown Bear, Ursus arctos and Grey Wolf, Canis lupus at Juraparc, Vallorbe, Switzerland (photo credit: Klaus Robin)
 Syrian Brown Bear, Ursus a. syriacus and Grey Wolves, Canis lupus at Tierpark Goldau, Switzerland (photo: Christian)  Part of the Syrian Brown Bear, Ursus a. syriacus and Grey Wolf, Canis lupus mixed exhibit at Tierpark Goldau, Switzerland (photo: Christian)
 Brown Bear, Ursus arctos and Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes at Skansen, Stockholm, Sweden (photo credit: Skansen)  Syrian Brown Bear, Ursus a. syriacus and Corsac Fox, Vulpes corsac at Zoo Heidelberg, Germany (photo credit: Zoo Heidelberg)
 Syrian Brown Bear, Ursus a. syriacus and Corsac Fox, Vulpes corsac at Zoo Heidelberg, Germany (photo credit: Allan Galway)  Syrian Brown Bear, Ursus a. syriacus and Corsac Fox, Vulpes corsac at Zoo Heidelberg, Germany (photo credit: Allan Galway)
 American Black Bear, Ursus americanus and White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus at Zoo sauvage de Saint-Félicien, Quebec, Canada (photo credit: Zoo sauvage de Saint-Félicien)  A Red Deer, Cervus elaphus is threatening an American Black Bear, Ursus americanus at Zoo sauvage de Saint-Félicien, Quebec, Canada (photo credit: Zoo sauvage de Saint-Félicien)
 American Black Bear, Ursus americanus and American Bisons, Bison bison at Safari Parc de Peaugres, France (photo credit: Arthus Boutin)  American Black Bear, Ursus americanus and female Cougar, Puma concolor at Out of Africa Wildlife Park, Camp Verde, Arizona, United States of America (photo credit: Out of Africa Wildlife Park)
 Asiatic Black Bear, Ursus thibetanus and Hanuman Langurs, Semnopithecus entellus at Zoologická zahrada Ostrava, Czech Republic (photo credit: Jana Kanichová)  Asiatic Black Bear, Ursus thibetanus and Hanuman Langur, Semnopithecus entellus at Zoologická zahrada Ostrava, Czech Republic (photo: Christian)
 Sun Bear, Helarctos malayanus and Binturong, Arctictis binturong at Espace Zoologique de Saint Martin la Plaine, France (photo credit: Espace Zoologique de Saint Martin la Plaine)  Spectacled Bear, Tremarctos ornatus and Oriental Small-clawed Otter, Aonyx cinereus at Durrell Wildlife Park, Jersey, United Kingdom (photo credit: Durrell Wildlife Park)
Spectacled Bear, Tremarctos ornatus and Brazilian Tapir, Tapirus terrestris at South Lakes Safari Zoo, Dalton-in-Furness, United Kingdom (photo credit: South Lakes Safari Zoo) Spectacled Bear, Tremarctos ornatus and South American Coati, Nasua nasua mixed exhibit at Chester Zoo, United Kingdom (photo: Christian)
 Spectacled Bear, Tremarctos ornatus and South American Coati, Nasua nasua  at Zoo Zürich, Switzerland (photo: Christian)  Spectacled Bear, Tremarctos ornatus and Brown-headed Spider Monkey, Ateles fusciceps at South Lakes Safari Zoo, Dalton-in-Furness, United Kingdom (photo credit: Gayle Hyde)

List of Mixed-Species Exhibits involving Ursids

In this part two tables show the different combinations that have been tried until this time. It is worth to mention that several zoological gardens in Europe – for example London Zoo, Zoo Halle, Zoo Osnabrück and Erlebnis-Zoo Hannover – housed different Ursids within the same enclosure that has sometimes resulted in hybrids.

Table 1. Examples of mixed-species exhibits involving at least one Ursid species combined with the undermentioned taxa with references

Ursid

Have been combined with other species

References

Brown Bear, Ursus arctos

Arctic Fox, Alopex lagopus

Banteng, Bos javanicus

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus

Wolverine, Gulo gulo

Eurasian Lynx, Lynx lynx

Sloth Bear, Melursus ursinus

American Black Bear, Ursus americanus

Polar Bear, Ursus maritimus


Asiatic Black Bear, Ursus thibetanus


Corsac Fox, Vulpes corsac


Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes

GÜRTLER 2012

HAMMER 2002

BLANC 2012

ROSSET 2007, 2012

HAMMER 2002

MÜLLER-SCHILLING 2012

HAMMER 2002, MÜLLER-SCHILLING 2012

HAMMER 2002, MÜLLER-SCHILLING 2012

HAMMER, 2002, MÜLLER-SCHILLING 2012

DIJKGRAAF 2012,
REICHLER-DANIELOWSKI 2012

ASAKURA 1968, ASKELUND 2012

Polar Bear, Ursus maritmus

Arctic Fox, Alopex lagopus

Sloth Bear, Melursus ursinus

American Black Bear, Ursus americanus

Brown Bear, Ursus arctos


Asiatic Black Bear, Ursus thibetanus

THOMAS 1968

MÜLLER-SCHILLING 2012

HAMMER 2002, MÜLLER-SCHILLING 2012

HAMMER 2002, MÜLLER-SCHILLING 2012

HAMMER 2002, MÜLLER-SCHILLING 2012

American Black Bear, Ursus americanus

Addax, Addax nasomaculatus

Moose, Alces americanus

American Bison, Bison bison


Bactrian Camel, Camelus bactrianus

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus


Red Deer, Cervus elaphus

Black-tailed Prairie Dog, Cynomis ludovicianus

Sloth Bear, Melursus ursinus

White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus

Mountain Goat, Oreamnos americanus

Arabian Oryx, Oryx leucoryx

Muskox, Ovibos moschatus

Bighorn Sheep, Ovis canadensis

Hamadryas Baboon, Papio hamadryas

Cougar, Puma concolor

Reindeer, Rangifer tarandus

Hanuman Langur, Semnopithecus entellus

Brown Bear, Ursus arctos


Polar Bear, Ursus maritimus


Asiatic Black Bear, Ursus thibetanus

HAMMER 2002

GAGNON 2012

DUBOIS 2012, GAGNON 2012, PIGNOREL 2007

HAMMER 2002

GAGNON 2012, HAMMER 2002, HARRISON & POWELL 2012

GAGNON 2012, LUBIW-HAZARD 2000

GAGNON 2012, LUBIW-HAZARD 2000


MÜLLER-SCHILLING 2012

GAGNON 2012, LUBIW-HAZARD 2000


LUBIW-HAZARD 2000

HAMMER 2002

GAGNON 2012, LUBIW-HAZARD 2000

GAGNON 2012, LUBIW-HAZARD 2000

HAMMER 2002

HARRISON 2012, POWELL 2012

GAGNON 2012, LUBIW-HAZARD 2000

AMES 1998


HAMMER 2002, MÜLLER-SCHILLING 2012

HAMMER 2002, MÜLLER-SCHILLING 2012

HAMMER 2002, MÜLLER-SCHILLING 2012

Asiatic Black Bear, Ursus thibetanus

Crested Porcupine, Hystrix cristata

Sloth Bear, Melursus ursinus

Hanuman Langur, Semnopithecus entellus

American Black Bear, Ursus americanus

Brown Bear, Ursus arctos


Polar Bear, Ursus maritimus


Corsac Fox, Vulpes corsac

Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes

DIJKGRAAF 2012

MÜLLER-SCHILLING 2012

ONDRUŠOVÁ 2007, 2012


HAMMER 2002, MÜLLER-SCHILLING 2012

HAMMER 2002, MÜLLER-SCHILLING 2012

HAMMER 2002, MÜLLER-SCHILLING 2012

DIJKGRAAF 2012

ASAKURA 1968

Sloth Bear, Melursus ursinus

Golden Jackal, Canis aureus

Sun Bear, Helarctos malayanus

Stump-tailed Macaque, Macaca arctoides

Rhesus Macaque, Macaca mulatta

Reeves’s Muntjac, Muntiacus reevesi

Indian Peafowl, Pavo cristatus

Hanuman Langur, Semnopithecus entellus

American Black Bear, Ursus americanus

Brown Bear, Ursus arctos

Polar Bear, Ursus maritimus

Asiatic Black Bear, Ursus thibetanus

JOHANN 2012

 

VERSTEEGE 2012


FELGNER 2007, VERSTEEGE 2012

AMES 1998

HETTLER 1998

AMES 1998


MÜLLER-SCHILLING 2012


MÜLLER-SCHILLING 2012

MÜLLER-SCHILLING 2012

MÜLLER-SCHILLING 2012

Sun Bear, Helarctos malayanus

Binturong, Arctictis binturong

Sloth Bear, Melursus ursinus

GERARD 2012, SCHOO 2012, VAN DE PUT 2012

Spectacled Bear, Tremarctos ornatus

Black Howler Monkey, Alouatta caraya

Oriental Small-clawed Otter, Aonyx cinereus

Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos

Brown-headed Spider Monkey, Ateles fusciceps

Brown Capuchin, Cebus apella

Capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris

South American Coati, Nasua nasua

Rosy-billed Pochard, Netta peposaca

Brazilian Tapir, Tapirus terrestris

HUNT 2012


HUNT 2012, WARD 2012


FISCHBACHER & SCHMID 1999

WARD 2012


WARD 2012

WARD 2012

CORDULA 2012, HUNT 2012

FISCHBACHER & SCHMID 1999

WARD 2012


Table 2. List of mixed-species exhibits involving at least one Ursid species combined with the undermentioned taxa with indication of the institution where it has been tried (*not valid anymore)

Ursid

Have been combined with other species

Examples of location

Brown Bear, Ursus arctos

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus

Dierenrijk, The Netherlands

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus

Ouwehands Dierenpark Rhenen, The Netherlands

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus

Bärenpark Worbis, Germany

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus

Zoo Berlin, Germany

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus

Tiergarten Bernburg, Germany

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus

Wildpark Lüneburger Heide, Germany

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus

Wildpark Nindorf, Germany

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus

Wildpark Poing, Germany

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus

Wisentgehege Springe, Germany

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus

Zoo Schwerin, Germany

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus

Juraparc, Switzerland

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus

Tierpark Goldau, Switzerland

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus

Kolmårdens Djurpark, Sweden

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus

Orsa Björnpark, Sweden

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus

Zoo Ljubjana, Slovenia

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus *

Zoo Veszprém, Hungary

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus *

Budakeszi Wildlife Park, Hungary

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus

Zoo Jászberény, Hungary

Arctic Fox, Alopex lagopus * (with Ursus a. middendorffi, later Ursus a. beringei)

ZOOM-Erlebniswelt Gelsenkirchen, Germany

Arctic Fox, Alopex lagopus *

Zoo Veszprém, Hungary

Arctic Fox, Alopex lagopus *

Skansen, Sweden

Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes

Skansen, Sweden

Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes *

Zoo Ljubjana, Slovenia

Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes

Alpenzoo Innsbruck, Austria

Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes

Dartmoor Zoological Park, United Kingdom

Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes *

Omaha Zoo, United States of America

Corsac Fox, Vulpes corsac (with Ursus a. syriacus)

Zoo Heidelberg, Germany

Corsac Fox, Vulpes corsac *

DierenPark Amersfoort, The Netherlands

Eurasian Lynx, Lynx lynx *

Zoo Salzburg, Austria

Wolverine, Gulo gulo *

Tierpark Dählhölzli, Switzerland

Polar Bear, Ursus maritimus

Arctic Fox, Alopex lagopus *

Omaha Zoo, United States of America

American Black Bear, Ursus americanus

Moose, Alces americanus

American Bison, Bison bison

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus

Red Deer, Cervus elaphus

Black-tailed Prairie Dog, Cynomys ludovicianus

White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus

Mountain Goat, Oreamnos americanus *

Muskox, Ovibos moschatus

Bighorn Sheep, Ovis canadensis *

Reindeer, Rangifer tarandus

Zoo sauvage de Saint-Félicien, Canada

American Bison, Bison bison

Safari Parc de Peaugres, France

American Bison, Bison bison

Black-tailed Prairie Dog, Cynomys ludovicianus

Ree Park (Ebeltoft Safari), Denmark

Grey Wolf, Canis lupus *

Cougar, Puma concolor *

Out of Africa Wildlife Park, United States of America

Hanuman Langur, Semnopithecus entellus *

 

Asiatic Black Bear, Ursus thibetanus

Hanuman Langur, Semnopithecus entellus

Zoologická zahrada Ostrava, Czech Republic

Crested Porcupine, Hystrix cristata *

Corsac Fox, Vulpes corsac *

DierenPark Amersfoort, The Netherlands

Corsac Fox, Vulpes corsac

Dierenrijk, The Netherlands

Sloth Bear, Melursus ursinus

Reeves’s Muntjac, Muntiacus reevesi *

Indian Peafowl, Pavo cristatus *

Hanuman Langur, Semnopithecus entellus *

London Zoo, United Kingdom

Rhesus Macaque, Macaca mulatta

Zoologischer Garten Leipzig, Germany

Stump-tailed Macaque, Macaca arctoides *

Rhesus Macaque, Macaca mulatta

Safaripark Beekse Bergen, The Netherlands

Golden Jackal, Canis aureus

NaturZoo Rheine, Germany

Sun Bear, Helarctos malayanus

Binturong, Arctictis binturong

Espace Zoologique de Saint Martin la Plaine, France

Binturong, Arctictis binturong

Burgers’ Zoo, The Netherlands

Spectacled Bear, Tremarctos ornatus

South American Coati, Nasua nasua *

Los Angeles Zoo, United States of America

Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos *

Rosy-billed Pochard, Netta peposaca *

Zoo Zürich, The Switzerland

South American Coati, Nasua nasua

Zoo Zürich, Switzerland

South American Coati, Nasua nasua

Zoo Antwerpen, Belgium

South American Coati, Nasua nasua

Chester Zoo, United Kingdom

Black Howler Monkey, Alouatta caraya

Oriental Small-clawed Otter, Aonyx cinereus *

South American Coati, Nasua nasua

Durrell Wildlife Park, United Kingdom

Brown-headed Spider Monkey, Ateles fusciceps (primates have their own enclosure)

Brown Capuchin, Cebus apella

Capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris

Oriental Small-clawed Otter, Aonyx cinereus

Brazilian Tapir, Tapirus terrestris

South Lakes Safari Zoo, United Kingdom


Acknowledgements

I would like to thank all the persons very much who helped to improve this short summary with providing information and photographs as well:

Achim JOHANN  (NaturZoo Rheine, Germany); Allan GALWAY (Belfast Zoological Gardens, United Kingdom); Andy FLACK (University of Bristol, BZG, United Kingdom); Ashton POWELL (Out of Africa Wildlife Park, Camp Verde, Arizona, United States of America); Cécile DUBOIS (Safari Parc de Peaugres, France); Christine GAGNON (Zoo sauvage de Saint-Félicien, Quebec, Canada); Colin NORTHCOTT (Dartmoor Zoological Park, United Kingdom); Cordula GALEFFI (Zoo Zürich, Switzerland); Dean HARRISON (Out of Africa Wildlife Park, Camp Verde, Arizona, United States of America); Heidi FELGNER (Zoologischer Garten Leipzig, Germany); dr. Heike KÜCK (Zoo am Meer, Bremerhaven, Germany); dr. Jean-Christophe GERARD (Espace Zoologique de Saint Martin la Plaine, France); Jenna HUNT (Durrell Wildlife Park, Jersey, United Kingdom); John PARTRIDGE (Bristol Zoo Gardens, United Kingdom); José KOK (Ouwehands Dierenpark Rhenen, The Netherlands); Kim VAN de PUT (Burgers’ Zoo, Arnhem, The Netherlands); Klaus MÜLLER-SCHILLING (Erlebnis-Zoo Hannover, Germany); Kris JANSEN (Dierenrijk, Mierlo, The Netherlands); Lars VERSTEEGE (Safaripark Beekse Bergen, Hilvarenbeek, The Netherlands); Linda ASKELUND (The Skansen Foundation, Stockholm, Sveden); dr. Lydia KOLTER (Kölner Zoo, Germany); dr. Marc ROSSET (Tierpark Dählhölzli, Bern, Switzerland); dr. Mélanie PIGNOREL (Safari Parc de Peaugres, France); Monika ONDRUŠOVÁ (Zoologická zahrada Ostrava, Czech Republic); Nils DIJKGRAAF (Dierenpark Amersfoort, The Netherlands); Olivier BLANC (Juraparc, Vallorbe, Switzerland); Sabrina HÖFT (Zoo Schwerin, Germany); Samantha WARD (South Lakes Safari Zoo, Dalton-in-Furness, United Kingdom); Sander HOFMAN (Zoo Antwerpen, Belgium); Sandra MOLLOY (Dublin Zoo, Ireland); Sandra REICHLER-DANIELOWSKI  (Zoo Heidelberg, Germany); Wineke SCHOO (Burgers’ Zoo, Arnhem, The Netherlands); Wolf-Dietrich GÜRTLER (ZOOM-Erlebniswelt, Gelsenkirchen, Germany), Arthus BOUTIN, Gayle HYDE, Jana KANICHOVÁ, Klaus ROBIN, Theo KRUSE, Tim PRESTON

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